Sunday, May 24, 2020

Loggerhead Sea Turtle Facts

The loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) is a marine sea turtle that gets its common name from its thick head, which resembles a log. Like other sea turtles, the loggerhead has a relatively lengthy life span—the species can live from 47 to 67 years in the wild. With the exception of the leatherback sea turtle, all sea turtles (including the loggerhead) belong to the family Chelondiidae. Loggerhead turtles sometimes breed and produce fertile hybrids with related species, such as the green sea turtle, hawksbill sea turtle, and Kemps ridley sea turtle. Fast Facts: Loggerhead Turtle Scientific Name: Caretta carettaDistinguishing Features: Large sea turtle with yellow skin, reddish shell, and thick headAverage Size: 95 cm (35 in) long, weighing 135 kg (298 lb)Diet: OmnivorousLife Span: 47 to 67 years in the wildHabitat: Temperate and tropical oceans worldwideConservation Status: VulnerableKingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: ChordataClass: ReptiliaOrder: TestudinesFamily: CheloniidaeFun Fact: The loggerhead turtle is the official state reptile of the state of South Carolina. Description The loggerhead sea turtle is the largest hard-shelled turtle in the world. The average adult is about 90 cm (35 in) long and weighs around 135 kg (298 lb). However, large specimens may reach 280 cm (110 in) and 450 kg (1000 lb). Hatchlings are brown or black, while adults have yellow or brown skin and reddish brown shells. Males and females look similar, but mature males have shorter plastrons (lower shells), longer claws, and thicker tails than females. Lachrymal glands behind each eye allow the turtle to excrete excess salt, giving the appearance of tears. Distribution Loggerhead turtles enjoy the largest distribution range of any sea turtle. They live in temperature and tropical seas, including the Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. Loggerheads live in coastal waters and the open sea. The females only come ashore to build nests and lay eggs. Loggerhead turtle distribution. NOAA Diet Loggerhead turtles are omnivorous, feeding on a variety of invertebrates, fish, algae, plants, and hatchling turtles (including those of its own species). Loggerheads use pointed scales on their forelimbs to manipulate and tear food, which the turtle crushes with powerful jaws. As with other reptiles, a turtles digestive rate increases as temperature rises. At low temperatures, loggerheads cant digest food. Predators Many animals prey upon loggerhead turtles. Adults are eaten by killer whales, seals, and large sharks. Nesting females are hunted by dogs and sometimes humans. Females are also susceptible to mosquitoes and flesh flies. Juveniles are eaten by moray eels, fish, and portunid crabs. Eggs and nestlings are prey to snakes, birds, mammals (including humans), lizards, insects, crabs, and worms. Over 30 animal species and 37 types of algae live on the backs of loggerhead turtles. These creatures improve the turtles camouflage, but they have no other benefit to the turtles. In fact, they increase drag, slowing the turtles swimming speed. Many other parasites and several infectious diseases affect loggerheads. Significant parasites include trematode and nematode worms. Behavior Loggerhead sea turtles are most active during the day. They spend up to 85% of the day underwater and can stay submerged for up to 4 hours before surfacing for air. They are territorial, typically conflicting over foraging grounds. Female-female aggression is common, both in the wild and in captivity. While the maximum temperature for the turtles is unknown, they become stunned and start floating when the temperature drops to about 10  Ã‚ °C. Reproduction Loggerhead turtles reach sexual maturity between 17 and 33 years of age. Courtship and mating occur in the open ocean along migration routes. Females return to the beach where they themselves hatched in order to lay eggs in the sand. A female lays, on average, about 112 eggs, usually distributed between four clutches. Females only lay eggs every two or three years. Upon hatching, loggerhead turtles make their way to the sea.  © / Getty Images The temperature of the nest determines the sex of the hatchlings. At 30  Ã‚ °C there is an equal ratio of male and females turtles. At higher temperatures, females are favored. At lower temperatures, males are favored. After about 80 days, hatchlings dig themselves out of the nest, usually at night, and head to the brighter surf. Once in the water, loggerhead turtles use magnetite in their brains and Earths magnetic field for navigation. Conservation Status The IUCN Red List classifies the loggerhead turtle as vulnerable. The size of the population is decreasing. Because of high mortality and slow reproductive rates, the outlook is not good for this species. Humans directly and indirectly threaten loggerheads and other sea turtles. Although worldwide legislation protects sea turtles, their meat and eggs are consumed where laws arent enforced. Many turtles die as bycatch or drown from entanglement in fishing lines and nets. Plastic poses a significant threat to loggerheads because the floating bags and sheets resemble jellyfish, a popular prey. Plastic can cause intestinal blockage, plus it releases toxic compounds that damage tissues, thin eggshells, or alter turtle behavior. Habitat destruction from human encroachment deprives turtles of nesting sites. Artificial lighting confuses hatchlings, interfering with their ability to find water. People who find hatchlings may be tempted to help them get to water, but this interference actually lowers their chance of survival, as it prevents them from building the strength needed to swim. Climate change is another cause for concern. Because temperature determines hatchling sex, rising temperatures may skew gender ratio in favor of females. In this respect, human development may aid turtles, as nests shaded by tall buildings are cooler and produce more males. Sources Casale, P. Tucker, A.D. (2017). Caretta caretta. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 2017: e.T3897A119333622. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T3897A119333622.en 404 404 404 404 404Committee on Sea Turtle Conservation, National Research Council (1990). Decline of the Sea Turtles: Causes and Prevention. The National Academies Press. ISBN 0-309-04247-X.Dodd, Kenneth (May 1988). Synopsis of the Biological Data on the Loggerhead Sea Turtle (PDF). Biological Report. FAO Synopsis NMFS-149, United States Fish and Wildlife Service. 88 (14): 1–83.Caretta caretta (Linnaeus 1758)Janzen, Fredric J. (August 1994). Climate change and temperature-dependent sex determination in reptiles (PDF). Population Biology. 91 (16): 7487–7490.Spotila, James R. (2004). Sea Turtles: A Complete Guide to their Biology, Behavior, and Conservation. Baltimore, Maryland: The Johns Hopkins University Press and Oakwood Arts. ISBN 0-8018-8007-6.

Monday, May 18, 2020

Gender and Our Judicial System Essay - 2349 Words

The ambiguous language and aim of the constitution has allowed for numerous interpretations of the law. There have been several instances, where our limited perception and interpretation of the constitution has warranted change due to cases that do not fit the ruling party’s ideology of equality. In those cases, we amended our constitution and included clear diction to award rights to those subjected to subordination, so in going forward a clear distinction would not allow room for interpretations that perpetuated further discrimination. Over the course of history, we have followed this path to incorporate our societies changing paradigm that was dissimilar to our founding fathers’. Interestingly so, the rights they deemed as inalienable†¦show more content†¦No state shall make or enforce any law, which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United State; nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. (U.S. Const. amend. XIV,  § 1). The Equal Protection Clause (EPC), ratified in 1868 and then added to the 14th amendment, is an assumptive all-inclusive key that offers protection against sex based discrimination. Although a warranted assumption, it is incorrect. Firstly, In The Readers Companion to Woman’s History (Mankiller, Mink, Navarro, Smith, Steinam, 1999) we discover that â€Å"the court has never read the 14th amendment to forbid all sex-based classifications† (p. 326). This elusive detail demonstrates the precarious standing of equality held within the 14th amendment. Additionally, it demonstrates the amendments unconstrained interpretations of sex. Since no precedent has been set against sex-based classification, there is no guarantee that sex discrimination is invalid in all conditions. In view of this major technicality, it is problematic to ensure that women, who suffer from the same bias and stereotypes yet hold dissimilar positions, will receive judicial equality and rectification wi thin our judicial system. This leads me to a practical example of this inequality, foundShow MoreRelatedIn Recent Decades, The Judicial Systems Failures And Shortcomings1409 Words   |  6 PagesIn recent decades, the Judicial Systems failures and shortcomings to proportionally represent minorities and women of our diverse nation has quickly become a controversial issue. â€Å"The United States is more diverse than ever, but its state judges are not. While we recognize that citizens are entitled to a jury of their peers who will be drawn from a pool that reflects the surrounding community, Americans who enter the courtroom often face a predictable presence on the bench: a white male† (Chase,Read MoreSexism And Racism Essay1301 Words   |  6 PagesAllison Price English 3 12 August 2017 MLA Sexism and Racism within the American Judicial System There is blatant sexism and racism within the American Judicial System shown by a lack of convictions and inconsistent sentencing. Despite many small steps forward towards equality, injustice and systemic racism still find their way into the cases and verdicts we hear on the news every day. The battle for racial and gender equality is a fight that’s been fought diligently for centuries and while stepsRead MoreDomestic Violence And Foreign Violence1251 Words   |  6 Pagespower and control over the other† (2015). As we have learned thus far in Race, Gender, and Class, intersectionality as stated by Lisa Anderson, is, â€Å"How systems of inequality mutually constitute and reinforce each other† (2015). Therefore, domestic violence is a system of inequality, regardless if it comprises of a heterosexual or homosexual relationship, and reciprocally supplements each other across the boundaries of genders, races or ethnicities, class,both economic and socioeconomic, st ereotypes,Read MoreThe Science of Punishments1090 Words   |  4 Pagesfactors are combined then it equates to something to the effect of constructing a system that is fair and equitable based on evidence in order to serve the greater good of the population. For example, murder is obviously bad for the population and should be punished severely. The same things can be said about crimes such as theft. However, non-violent and victimless crimes would be harder to justify under such as system. For example, if a productive and otherwise law abiding citizen wished to take recreationalRead MoreAnalysis Of The Poem The Blacker The Berry By Kendrick Lamar940 Words   |  4 PagesHave we let racism become a norm in our everyday lives? We turn a blind eye to racism that happens right in front of us. Categorizing people has become normal and if someone someone gets offended by the remarks someone makes of their race or ethnicity they are considered someone without humor. We are to blame fo r the everyday racism we see in the music, television, posters, etc because we see it as something normal. In the song â€Å"The Blacker the Berry† by Kendrick Lamar, Lamar calls himself the biggestRead MoreHow An Individuals Socioeconomic Status Can Affect The Justice Administered To Them by the Judicial Branch1248 Words   |  5 Pages and or socioeconomic status can affect the justice administered to them by the United States judicial branch. The Judicial Branch of the United States government is an extremely important factor in the success of today’s society, without it, society would have no standard of order and things would be completely and utterly chaotic! As a matter of fact no country would be complete without a Judicial Branch or some type of government in place because it is mandatory in the successful and smoothRead MoreThe Civil Rights Act Of 1964 Essay1444 Words   |  6 Pages The Civil Rights Act of 1964 was significant to African Americans because the act ended segregation in public places and ended employment prejudice based on the pigment of skin, national origin, gender, ethnicity, or/and religion. The Act was one of the most momentous events to impact African Americans on the account of bringing equality to minorities on paper and giving them opportunities to voice their political and community concerns. However, there were unforeseen consequences that added toRead MoreThe American Civil Libert ies Union1233 Words   |  5 Pagespolice officers is only promoting these behaviors, and a stop should be put to them. By implementing stricter consequences, officers would be more conscious in their actions but now, it affects them as well. Another strong bias displayed in the judicial system is the obvious bias in criminal sentencing in the court. Many studies support the conclusion that people of color are sentenced longer in prison for the same crime as a white person (McElrath, Tran, and Taylor 2). The American Civil LibertiesRead MoreRace, Racial, And Culture And Heritage1320 Words   |  6 Pagesflourished tremendously for the past 100 years. But what we tend to overlook are the millions of unheard voices deep in the plains, those of the non-immigrants, the Native Americans. Rich in their culture and heritage, the Native Americans built a system, and co-existed with the environment, in which they hunted and gathered, and shared amongst one another. Their reign was long, and their territory plenty, but this would only last until the early 1490’s when Christopher Columbus would reached theRead MoreEssay on Against the Death Penalty881 Words   |  4 PagesAgainst the Death Penalty The death penalty is one of the most controversial issues in our time. There are many issues that show and prove the death penalty is wrong and reasons why it should be ceased. Many issues have objections towards the death penalty shows that the death penalty is unfair, irreversible and expensive. The Death penalty is an unfair system used as punishment to criminals that performed wrong and unmoral crimes. The death penalty is unfair in the way that is discriminatory

Wednesday, May 13, 2020

The Art Of Leadership And Leadership - 2131 Words

Leadership Paper The art of leadership is multifaceted, with areas for continued opportunity and improvement. A strong and effective leader possess a well-rounded set of skills and characteristics that allow for the group being led to be powerful followers. This is essential in order to have both leader and followers focused on a purpose and vision. Regardless of the type of organization, leadership is a necessity in a professional practice. Depending on the type of leadership, the organization can flourish or flounder. If a strong and effective leader is in charge with a clear vision in place, the organization is more likely to excel. On the contrary, with ineffective leadership in place, it creates a sense of chaos, offering minimal†¦show more content†¦The patient goes through intensive physical, occupational and speech therapy (if indicated), with goals of restoring independence in activities of daily living to the highest level possible given the barriers from the disea se. Patients attend 3 hours of therapy a day, 5-7 days a week. In addition to the therapy team, this unit also staffs nurses [both Registered Nurse (RN) and Licensed Professional Nurse (LPN)], nursing assistants (NA’s), health unit coordinators (HUC), care coordinators, social workers, therapeutic recreational therapists, along with physiatrists. It is an integrated disciplinary team, requiring a great deal of teamwork and communication in order for the patient to receive the best care possible from admission through discharge. The nurse leader in charge of Facility A has been in this position for close to 16 years. Her official title is Clinical Nurse Manager of Facility A. L.H.’s educational background includes a Baccalaureate Degree in Nursing, as well as a Master Degree in Arts. Her role is to oversee the Assistant Clinical Nurse Managers (ACNM’s), the staff nurses, and the assistive personnel, which includes LPN’s, NA’s, and HUC’s. She works closely with the Patient Care Nurse Supervisor as well. Her role also

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

How Does Caffeine And Nicotine Affect Daphnia Magna

How Does Caffeine and Nicotine Affect Daphnia magna Introduction: The experiment conducted primarily focused on the heart of the Daphnia magna and how it is affected by caffeine and nicotine. The organism is transparent this key feature is ideal for a model organism. During the experiment a total number of four organisms were treated with caffeine and nicotine. Caffeine is a stimulant of the nervous system. (Caffeine. 2015) Caffeine is present in highly consumed products such as coffee, tea, chocolate, alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages. (Caffeine Uses. 2014) The stimulant has a side effect of increasing heart rate in humans. (Howell, Lopez, Marshall, Peters 2003) Nicotine is another stimulant found in tobacco. It widely affects agriculture and is consumed by many people. (What Effect. 2015) A common side effect of Nicotine is an increase of heart rate. (What Effects. 2015) Studies have shown that both nicotine and caffeine increase heart rate in humans. The question to answer is how does it impact the heart rate in other organisms? More spec ifically how will these substances interact with Daphnia manga’s heart rate? Since caffeine and nicotine increase heart rate in humans it was hypothesized that it will increase the heart rate in Daphnia magna Background: Daphnia magna is primarily found in freshwater and brackish environments. (Elenbass 2013) Daphnia are commonly known as â€Å"water fleas† due to their small body form and hyperactivity. Daphnia move very rapidly inShow MoreRelatedEffects Of The Heart Rate From Caffeine And Ethanol1137 Words   |  5 Pagesof the heart rate from caffeine and ethanol. By understanding the topic, it can be proven that these drugs affect organisms in a certain way, such as the heart rate. The information, collected following the experiment, can be inferred in recognizing the way our body responds to chemicals when drinking coffees and colas. The experiment was conducted by inducing the species Daphnia magna to both caffeine and ethanol, while being compared to a controlled group. Daphnia magna are small crustaceans, commonly

Future Job Free Essays

Just imagine this; you’re sitting in an extravagant, red chair surrounded by incredibly brilliant people like One Direction, Justin Timberlake and Taylor Swift; in a dress that was designed just for you, by Vera Wang herself. Suddenly, you are pulled back into reality as you hear your named being called as a spontaneous applause begins. You walk up to the stage as they play one of your recent hits that was sold out worldwide and you start to give your acceptance speech for winning a Grammy for Record of the Year! My dream job ever since I was little was to be a popular, legendary music artist. We will write a custom essay sample on Future Job or any similar topic only for you Order Now As nice as it sounds with money, popularity, and not to mention the thousands of fans, there have always been three key flaws of being a well-known singer; the no privacy, the work shift, and family. In the first place, becoming a celebrity, especially at a young age, would require accepting the fact that I would no longer have â€Å"alone time. † For instance, say I wanted to go out with my friends and have a good time. I would have simply one drink and the next day, Star magazine would accumulate rumors and it would be saying that I am an alcoholic, that my life is in chaos and I am getting drunk to compensate for this. Even working in the studio with another singer of the opposite gender and taking a lunch break together would be blown out of proportion. Correspondingly, if I was to be in a relationship, tabloids would be taking pictures of our every move and it would come out any way the paparazzi wanted the story to play out, for the enjoyment of others. It may even get to a point where if there was no interesting news at the moment, they could twist it so there would be a break up with the guy I was seeing. My private life would be public. No matter what was going on in my love life, the whole world would know. I could become an open matter for the world to judge. Consequently, the work hours may seem to be the equivalent with a majority of other jobs however, it comes with that and more. Knowing the music industry, I could be anywhere, possibly doing a world tour or maybe even an album promotion in LA, New York, etc. This requires a lot of adjustment to different time zones and studio work could possibly even call me to be there at six in the morning and not get out of there until later into the day. Exhaustion would be the highest factor in my life. After a while you could even get sick of it, mentally or physically. There would also be promoting the records and endorsements that would cause more inhumanly hours of work. Somehow I would likewise have to manage to fit in interviews and publicity stunts on top of all of that. Let’s not forget the myriads of charities that would be necessary for me to be getting involved in. Lastly, my family would be the third and probably leading flaw with my choice. In my life, my parents, my sisters, and all my loved ones have always been my first priority. I’m not saying that choosing this occupation would make me lose contact with my relatives, but it would formulate a great impact on the amount of time I get with them. On the other hand, the normal holidays such as Christmas, New Year’s, and summer are a great time to get together with family but also at the same time, the perfect opportunity in a singer’s career to make public appearances. Generally speaking, the chance to grow into an immense star in the music world is wonderful but comparable to many things in life, as well comes with numerous drawbacks. Now, go back to that scene in your head where you’re just about to grasp that Grammy, all the hard work you ever did in your life leads up to this moment. As you accept that Grammy, you think to yourself, is this job the reason for your smile right now? How to cite Future Job, Papers Future job Free Essays To begin with, I would say an absolutely essential thing that it is not easy to make a choice about my future job. Especially, if I want to make the right choice. Criteria of choosing a job of the other people may be pretty different from mine ones, even though in my view the most important criteria are: personal satisfaction, ability to use my initiative and to pay for my bills. We will write a custom essay sample on Future job or any similar topic only for you Order Now So, why are these things so special for me? As every young person, I feel really optimistic about my prospects, but my career ideas seem to be rather vague and odd.Nevertheless. The one thing I strongly believe in – I will not succeed if my job is not exciting and there is not any kind of adventure. Moreover, the same will take place if my job is hopelessly routine and get bored with the deal at first minutes. A long-term career with job security and eventually retire with a good pension will surely make me deeply frustrated, I suppose. To my mind, I want to be active in everything I can, even in my job. Once, one artist said: ‘Do your thing. Do your thing, it is all about you and your freedom.Remember, that you should be yourself in everything you do. Only in this case you will have a chance to become successful. ‘ That’s why long-term career prospects mean not much for me. It seems to me that doing things I love and getting paid for the that is the best thing in life ever. Therefore, it would be really great to have a sort of my own business : agency, gallery, etc. It is excellent, when you are your own boss, when the amount of money you get depends only on you and nobody else.What is more, you will be free from any kind of redundancy or downsizing. However, to become one day an independent person which does her own affair, I will have to develop and obsess special skills. Having a good sense of intuition and luxuriant imagination are great things to develop and terrible ones to waste in a world that offers economic security. Also I will have to be resilient as well as resourceful. As I see it, it will be quite hard to follow the dreams. Apart from that, I believe that giving yourself a chance worth it. How to cite Future job, Papers

Bipolar Vision in Amitav Ghoshs Novels free essay sample

Amitav Ghosh is a rare breed. He bade adieu to teaching long back. He is now busy in reading and learning. Every book means a lot of research for Amitav Ghosh. He studies the place. What he did in his youth is important. But even in his old age he gives equal importance to hard work and research for writing a book. Just imagine, for writing the book, River of Smoke at the age of 55 he took nearly three and a half years travelling and reading. It is to write the second book of his Ibis trilogy he spent several weeks in Guangzhou and learnt some Cantonese to depict the background of the novel which is set in Fanquit town. This explains why Amitav Ghosh writes history and fiction equally well. In his novels he creates an entire world out of an even a small village. In the same way he wrote book after book. His books include The Circle of Reason, The Shadow Lines, In An Antique Land, Dancing in Cambodia, The Calcutta Chromosome, The Glass Palace, Incendiary Circumstances, and The Hungry Tide. His first novel, Sea of Poppies, is the first volume of the Ibis Trilogy and his recent one is River of Smoke Amitav Ghoshs debut novel The Circle of Reason is an indication of great things to come. The novel does not have much of a story. It has great characters, won the Prix Medicis Etranger, one of Frances top literary awards, Portrayal of memorable characters and to weave a neat plot out of them is now the forte of Amitav’s novel, but it was his Achiles’s heel in The Circle of Reason. He has created memorable characters and situations in that debut novel, but has failed to string them together in a meaty story . The storyline veers around a local would-be scientist who is in love with phrenology and goes around measuring all the villagers heads, and a small boy . It turns tragic, hilarious, and profoundly philosophic . True to Amitavs style, his characters are well etched, although he has tended to stretch the uni-dimension that he fixates on a little more this time. His attention to detail was immaculate as in his later novels, though occasionally distracting. The boarder town hosting refugees serves as seting for this vivid and magical story. The novel traces the misadventures of Alu, a young master weaver in a small Bengali village who is falsely accused of terrorism. Alu flees his home, travelling through Bombay to the Persian Gulf to North Africa with a bird-watching policeman in pursuit. This is a strange novel. In fact in this magical realism Amitav makes a claim on literary turf held by Gabriel Garcia Marquez and Salman Rushdie. Amitav’s narrative represents a prodigious feat of research and the novels that follow are excellent examples of it. With a Calcutta background, Amitav who studied in Dehra Dun, New Delhi, Alexandria and Oxford and his first job was at the Indian Express newspaper in New Delhi developed a broad minded progressive anti-colonial approach . His scholarly self mingled with the writer’s self in him. He earned a doctorate at Oxford before he wrote his first novel, which was published in 1986. The Shadow Lines and The Glass Palace, which deal movingly and powerfully with post-imperial dislocations in Bengal and Burma. The characters are delineated with integrity and dignity. He makes historical perspectives real and yet the fictional depiction of reality has about it a contemporaneity. The Shadow Lines won the Sahitya Akademi Award and the Ananda Puraskar. Incendiary Circumstances,and The Hungry Tide also earned a great critical acclaim. The Calcutta Chromosome won the Arthur C. Clarke Award for 1997 and The Glass Palace won the Grand Prize for Fiction at the Frankfurt International e-Book Awards in 2001. The Hungry Tide won the Hutch Crossword Book Prize in 2006. In 2007 Amitav Ghosh was awarded the Grinzane Cavour Prize in Turin, Italy. But the shift in Amitav Ghosh’s writing occurs with his master plan of writing the Ibis trilogy. The Sea of Poppies, the first in his Ibis trilogy has great characters and an interesting plot. The novelist focuses on the British traders’ hypocritical and self-justifying espousal of the doctrine of free trade . The theme is based on the opium trade down the Ganges to Calcutta and towards Mauritius. The novel is ,however, written upon a much larger canvas than ever before, with a multitude of characters and an epic vision. There is a colourful array of seamen, convicts and labourers sailing forth in the hope of transforming their lives. Apparently it seems that the characters are his targets. The Brits whom he depicts are basically scheming, perverse and ruthless to a man , but Ghosh has portrayed them not as round characters who grow. They are largely caricatures. At the end of The Sea of Poppies, the clouds of war were seen looming, as British opium interests in India pressed for the use of force to compel the Chinese mandarins to keep open their ports, in the name of free trade. Symbolically , the novel thus ends amidst a raging storm, rocking the triple-masted schooner, the Ibis. River of Smoke  is essentially self-contained, its narrative not needing familiarity with what has gone before. The author’s sympathies are largely with the Chinese In the River of Smoke , the writer’s focus is now shifted to the opium trade with China, centred on the coastal port of Canton. As in The Sea of Poppies, two other vessels have also been caught up in a similar storm. The Anahita, a sumptuously-built cargo vessel is here shown as owned by the Bombay Parsi merchant Bahram Modi . Bahram Modi is the successful entrepreneur with the best view from his office, the only Indian member of the Committee of the Western-led Chamber of Commerce in Canton and the lover of a Chinese boatwoman, Chi-Mei, through whom he has fathered a son he cannot acknowledge. The ship called Anahita is his biggest shipment of raw opium for sale in Canton. The other vessel is Redruth, a Cornish vessel with a cargo of unusual flora . The Cornish botanist who looks for rare plants ,particularly the mythical golden camellia in China is also there in the vessel. The rounded portrayal of characters is most interesting aspect of the novel while in the earlier novels there is a tendency towards caricature. Ghosh’s purpose is clearly both literary and political. His descriptions are vivid and a lost world is revived to life. There is the air of a Victorian epistolary novel when we find the chatty letters of the gay Eurasian painter Robin Chinnery. At times, between the vivid descriptions of a riot on the maidan and the delightfully chatty letters of the gay Eurasian painter Robin Chinnery. At the same time there is the flavor of Conrad’s story especially reflected in the stunning reversal of perspective. The author’s fine feel for nautical niceties, reminds us of the romanticised vision of writers like James Clavell, but those writers, placed the white man at the centre of their narratives. Amitav deliberately relegates his colonists to the margins of his story. The focus is entirely on the colonialism’s impoverished, and usually non-white, victims. They are given the central position, not the white masters. Amitav Ghosh took nearly three and a half years to write the second book of his Ibis trilogy. He spent several weeks in Guangzhou and learnt some Cantonese to depict the background of the novel which is set in Fanquit town. Most of the action occurs in Guangzhou . Like the Sea of Poppies ,the novel which deals with opium trade in China is also not a single linear . Like Lawrence Durrell’s Alexandria Quartet, the relationship between Sea of Poppies and River of Smoke is a ‘tangential one’ as Amitav Ghosh himself describes it. The mash-up of fact and  fiction works, coalescing into a narrative shaped by cataclysmic historical events but inflected with small-scale personal drama beautifully works here in the novel. Amitav Ghosh is particularly good at representing the distinctive voices of his characters; what sometimes seemed forced in the earlier book is natural and convincing in River of Smoke, He exquisitely reproduces the new hybrid language resulting from the mongrel mating of tongues. For this he learns Cantonese with arduous efforts. Sometimes he does go overboard with his Hobson-Jobson; his prose is littered with words the average reader has rarely encountered, â€Å"swadders†, â€Å"buttoners†, â€Å"mumpers† and â€Å"mucksnipes†, all heard on the Canton maidan. Terms like â€Å"cumshaw†, â€Å"gubbrowed†, â€Å"girmitiyas†, â€Å"mudlarking† and â€Å"linkisters† are used so often along with words used by Indians in diverse contexts , chuck-muck as any in the city, with paltans of nokar-logue doing chukkers in the hallways and syces swarming in the istabbuls. There is even an Indian restaurant in Canton, run by a boatwoman who had grown up in Calcutta’s Chinatown. She utters Achha to ensure that it would contain neither beef nor pork. River of Smoke is deliberately written in an almost old-fashioned style, its prose straightforward and unadorned, its emotions deeply affecting. Despite the varied nationalities of his characters, the Indian reader can be left in little doubt about the author’s basic allegiance. This is an Indian novel, but one written by a 21st-century Indian, one who is both cosmopolitan and conscious of his heritage. â€Å"Democracy is a wonderful thing†, Bahram observes to a British merchant. It is a marvellous tamasha that keeps the common people busy so that men like ourselves can take care of all matters of importance. I hope one day India will also be able to enjoy these advantages — and China too, of course. † This is the realistic tone of Amitav in the two novels of his Ibis trilogy, Ghosh has come a long way from the magic realism of his first novel. After Song of Poppies, Amitav Ghoshâ€℠¢s second novel The River of Smoke is going to be one of the masterpieces of twenty first century Indian English literature. He is now keen on writing the third part of his Ibis trilogy.

Monday, May 4, 2020

Economic International Legal Considerations Essay Example For Students

Economic International Legal Considerations Essay International Legal ConsiderationsThis chapter covers a wide range of regulations, procedures, and practices that fall into three categories: regulations that exporters must follow to comply with U.S. law; procedures that exporters should follow to ensure a successful export transaction; and programs and certain tax procedures that open new markets or provide financial benefits to exporters. Export RegulationsGeneral Introduction The Export Administration Regulations (EAR) regulate the export and reexport of items for national security, nonproliferation, foreign policy, and short supply reasons. The Department of Commerces Bureau of Export Administration (BXA) has taken important steps to remove unnecessary obstacles to exporting, including completion of U.S. regulatory reform effort and export control liberalizations. Working closely with the exporting community, BXA has simplified the EAR, especially for those companies new to exporting. In addition, export controls have been liberalized on many products sold by U.S. companies around the world, consistent with national security and foreign policy concerns. We will write a custom essay on Economic International Legal Considerations specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now A relatively small percentage of exports and reexports requires the submission of a license application to BXA. License requirements are dependent upon an items technical characteristics, the destination, the end use, and the end user. Determining whether a license is required for export is easier under the newly drafted regulations which consolidate license requirements previously scattered throughout the regulations. Once a classification has been determined, exporters may use a single chart to determine if licenses are needed for a country. The revised regulations include answers to frequently asked questions, detailed step-by-step instructions for finding out if a transaction is subject to the regulations, how to request a commodity classification or advisory opinion, and how to apply for a license. The EAR groups items (commodities, software, and technology) into ten categories each containing several entries. These entries are the Export Control Classification Numbers (ECCN). These entries are in Supplemental N0. 1 to part 774 of the EAR, which is the Commerce Control List (CCL). The CCL and the Country Chart, Supplement No. 1 to part 738 taken together, define items subject to export controls based solely on the technical parameters of the item and the country of ultimate destination. Items that are listed on the CCL but do not require a license by reason of the Country Chart and items classified as EAR99 (see 734. 3(c) of the EAR entitled Scope of the EAR) are designated as NLR, or no license required. All countries are not treated in the same way under the EAR because different countries present different national security, nonproliferation, or foreign policy considerations for the United States. A license requirement may be based on the end use or end user in a transaction, primarily for proliferation reasons. Part 744 of the EAR describes such requirements and relevant licensing policies and includes both restrictions on items and restrictions on the activities of U. S. persons. The EAR covers more than exports. Items subject to the EAR are generally controlled for reexport from one foreign country to another. A relatively small percentage of exports and reexports requires an application to BXA for a license. Many items are not on the CCL or, if on the CCL, require a license only to a limited number of countries. Other transactions may be covered by one or more License Exceptions in the EAR, part 740. However, a license is required for virtually all exports to embargoed destinations such as Cuba. Part 746 of the EAR describes embargoed destinations and refers to certain additional controls imposed by the Office of Foreign Assets Controls of the Treasury Department. Sometimes the EAR are referred to as dual use regulations. The term dual use refers to items that can be used for both military and other strategic uses (e.g. , nuclear) and commercial applications. It also refers to items with solely civil uses. The term is also used to distinguish the scope of the EAR from items covered by the regulations of other agencies. For example, the U. S. Department of State controls exports of weapons and military related items on the U.S. Munitions List, while the Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission control certain items for nuclear reasons. For more information on the control of agencies other than BXA, see Supplement No. 3 to part 730 of the EAR. Steps for Using the EAR You may first look at part 732 of the EAR for the steps you follow to determine your obligations. Part 734 defines the scope of the EAR and excludes certain publicly available technology, as well as items properly subject to the jurisdiction of another agency. What is the proper classification for your item? This information is essential to determining any licensing requirements under the EAR. You may either classify your item on your own according to the CCL or you may ask BXA for assistance. The EAR is structured in a way that you should follow the steps in order. To determine whether you need a license, consider, in order, the scope of the EAR (part 734), the ten general prohibitions (part 736), and the license exceptions (part 740). .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .postImageUrl , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:hover , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:visited , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:active { border:0!important; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:active , .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51 .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ueec4a0b360cf376ef9a6731ac4d1da51:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Critical Thinking and Business Decisions Essay General Prohibitions The general prohibition are found in part 736 of the EAR. The ten general prohibitions describe certain exports, reexports, and other conduct, subject to the scope of the EAR, in which you may not engage unless you have a license from BXA or qualify under part 740 of the EAR for a license exception from each applicable general prohibition paragraph. License Exceptions A license exception is an authorization for the export or reexport of some commodities, technology, or software under certain conditions. This gives you authority to ship certain items subject to the EAR that would otherwise require a license . Eligibility for license exceptions may be based on the item to be exported or reexported, the country of ultimate destination, the end use of the item, or the end user. If a license exception is available for a particular transaction, you may proceed with the transaction without a license. A license exception does not require a specific application nor approval from the Department of Commerce. However, you are required to meet all terms, conditions, and provisions for the use of that license exception. Applying for a License and Application Processing If an export license is required, you must prepare a Form BXA-748P, Mulipurpose Application Form, and submit it to BXA. The form can be used for requesting an export license, reexports, or commodity classifications. You may request forms by fax at 202-219-9179 or by phone on 202-482-3332. You must be certain to follow the instructions on the form carefully. In some instances, technical brochures and support documentation must also be included. In reviewing specific license applications, BXA will conduct a complete analysis of the license application along with all documentation submitted in support of the application. In addition to reviewing the item and end use, BXA will consider the reliability of each party to the transaction and review any available intelligence information. To the maximum extent possible, BXA will make licensing decisions without referral of license applications to other agencies; however, BXA may consult with other U. S. departments and agencies regarding any license application. Further information concerning the review policy for various controls is contained in parts 742 and 750. You may contact BXA for status of your pending certification request, advisory opinion, or license application. For advisory opinion requests, telephone 202-482-4905 or send a fax to 202-219-9179. For license applications and classification requests, telephone BXAs System for Tracking Export License Applications (STELA) at 202-482-2752. STELA is an automated voice response system that, upon request via any standard touch-tone telephone, will provide you with up-to-the-minute status on any license application pending at BXA. Requests for status may be made only by the applicant or the applicants agent. Avoiding Delays in Receiving a License In filling out a license application, rexporters commonly make four errors that account for most delays in processing applications: 1. Failing to sign the application. 2. Handwriting, rather than typing the application. 3. Responding inadequately to section 22(j) of the application, Description of Commodity or Technical Data, which calls for a description of the item or items to be exported. You must be specific, and you are encouraged to attach additional material to explain the product fully. 4. Responding inadequately to section 21 of the application, where the specific end use of the products or technical data is to be described. Again, you must be specific. Answering vaguely or entering unknown is likely to delay the application process. In an emergency, the Department of Commerce may consider expediting the processing of an export license application, but this procedure cannot be used as a substitute for filing of an application. If you feel you qualify for emergency handling, you should contact the Exporter Counseling Division at 202-482-4811 or by mail to the: U.S. Department of Commerce Bureau of Export Administration Office of Exporter Services Exporter Counseling Division 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW, Room 2706 Washington, D.C. 20230 Export Clearance If you are issued a BXA license, or you rely on a license exception described in part 740 of the EAR, you are responsible for the proper use of that license or license exception and for the performance of all its terms and conditions. If you export without either a license issued by BXA or a license exception, you are responsible for determining that the transaction is outside the scope if the EAR or the export is designated as No License Required. Both the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations of the Census Bureau (15 CFR part 30) and the Export Administration Regulations require that the Shippers Export Declaration (SED) be submitted to the U.S. .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .postImageUrl , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:hover , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:visited , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:active { border:0!important; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:active , .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56 .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .ub85d9d785d416ff1910a7898769e8f56:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: KARMA Essay Paper Government. There are exceptions to this rule, but if you are required to submit an SED, you must prepare it in accordance with the rules of the Foreign Trade Statistics Regulations (FTSR) and present the number of copies specified in the FTSR at the port if export. For more information about the FTSR or the SED, visit the Census Bureau online at http://www.census. gov/foreign-trade/www. Records on exports must be retained for five years from date of export, reexport, or any known diversion. For more information on export clearances, see part 758 of the EAR. For additional information on recordkeeping, see part 762. Where to Get Assistance The staring point for export licensing requirements and the regulations is the Exporter Counseling Division. BXAs counselors can guide you through the regulations to determine your licensing requirements. They can be reached by phone at 202-48-4811 and fax at 202-482-3617. BXA also maintains a Web site at http://www. The regulations are published in volume 15 of the Code of Federal Regulations starting at part 730. If you wish to purchase a loose-leaf version of the EAR or any electronic version of the EAR with updates, you may contact the National Technical Information Service order desk at 703-487-4630. In addition, the Export Administration Regulations are available through the EAR Electronic Market Place on the World Wide Web at http://w3.access.gpo. gov/bxa. Antidiversion, Antiboycott, and Antitrust RequirementsAntidiversion Clause To help ensure that U.S. exports go only to legally authorized destinations, the U. S. government requires a destination control statement on shipping documents. Under this requirement, the commercial invoice and bill of lading (or air waybill) for nearly all commercial shipments leaving the United States must display a statement notifying the carrier and all foreign parties (the ultimate and intermediate consignees and purchaser) that the U.S. material has been licensed for export only to certain destinations and may not be diverted contrary to U.S. law. Exceptions to the use of the destination control statement are shipments to Canada and intended for consumption in Canada and shipments being made under certain general licenses. Advice on the appropriate statement to be used can be provided by the Department of Commerce, an attorney, or the freight forwarder. The minimum antidiversion statement for goods exported under Commerce Department authority is: These commodities, technology, or software, were exported from the United States in accordance with the Export Administration Regulations. Diversion contrary to U.S. law is prohibited. Antiboycott Regulations The United States has an established policy of opposing restrictive trade practices or boycotts fostered or imposed by foreign countries against other countries friendly to the United States. This policy is implemented through the antiboycott provisions of the Export Administration Act enforced by the Department of Commerce and through the Tax Reform Act of 1977 enforced by the Department of the Treasury. o Prohibiting U. S. agencies or persons from refusing to do business with blacklisted firms and boycotted friendly countries pursuant to foreign boycott demands; o Prohibiting U.S. persons from discriminating against, or agreeing to discriminate against other U. S. persons on the basis of race, religion, sex, or national origin in order to comply with a foreign boycott; o Prohibiting U.S. persons from furnishing information about business relationships with boycotted friendly foreign countries or blacklisted companies in response to boycott requirements; o Providing for public disclosure of requests to comply with foreign boycotts; and o Requiring U. S. persons who receive requests to report receipt of the requests to the Commerce Department and disclose publicly whether they have complied with such requests. The antiboycott provisions of the Export Administration Act apply to all U.S. persons, including intermediaries in the export process, as well as foreign subsidiaries that are controlled in fact by U.S. companies and U.S. officials. The Department of Commerces Office of Antiboycott Compliance (OAC) administers the program through ongoing investigations of corporate activities. OAC operates an automated boycott-reporting system providing statistical and enforcement data to Congress and to the public, issuing interpretations of the regulations for the affected public, and offering nonbinding informal guidance to the private sector on specific compliance concerns. U. S. firms with questions about complying with antiboycott regulations should call OAC at 202-482-2381 or write to Office of Antiboycott Compliance, Bureau of Export Administration, Room 6098, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, DC 20230. Antitrust Laws The U.S. antitrust laws reflect this nations commitment to an economy based on competition. They are intended to foster the efficient allocation of